Hair testing for drug use gains traction — but critics say the science needs to catch up

first_imgPoliticsHair testing for drug use gains traction — but critics say the science needs to catch up Please enter a valid email address. Alissa Ambrose/STAT The findings made headlines when they came out recently — more Americans failing workplace drug checks than at any time in the last decade.Quest Diagnostics’s report in September that workforce drug use had reached a 10-year high came from an analysis of more than 10.5 million drug tests that the company conducted for employers in 2015. Most of those tests used urine or saliva. But 200,000 tests were performed on hair, and those tests showed the greatest increase, the report found.But those findings might not be what they appear. Hair testing for drug use, available for decades, is a developing science. The tests are offered by a number of private testing companies, and approved by the FDA, but the federal government doesn’t currently recognize hair as a reliable sample for federally regulated programs. And studies over the years have indicated that hair can absorb drugs in the environment and may show higher concentrations in dark-colored hair, leading to possible racial bias.advertisement The hairy detailsHair testing has been widely available since the 1980s. Testing labs take about 120 strands of straight hair, or a cotton-ball-sized sample of curly hair, to do the analysis. After washing, the hair is dissolved in solvents. The resulting liquid is analyzed using gas chromatography and mass spectrometry to identify any drug metabolites that may be present.The premise is that as new hair cells form in the hair follicle, they absorb molecules of substances circulating in the blood. Those molecules get embedded into the hair cells, creating a permanent, chemical record that stays in the hair as it grows out of the skin.Drug molecules can appear in the follicle within minutes of ingestion, and remain detectable for up to 90 days in most cases. Testing companies thus market the test to employers as offering more information than urine tests.“Employers are interested in hair testing as a kind of lifestyle test,” said Barry Sample, a pharmacologist and head of science and technology for Quest. More employers are using the test, Sample said, because of the opioid epidemic. By Leah Samuel Nov. 1, 2016 Reprints However there are signs that the tests are coming into the mainstream. The Department of Health and Human Services is in the process of evaluating hair testing (alongside saliva testing) as a potential addition to the federal employee screening process. It expects to release guidance by the end of this year. That could mean that many federal agencies, military members, organizations receiving federal grants, and large government contractors could be adopting hair testing in the future.Meanwhile, a case awaiting a ruling at the Federal Court of Appeals for the First Circuit rests on whether hair testing is racially discriminatory, a question that is sure to come up in HHS’s ongoing deliberations about the technique.advertisement Tags cocaineillegal drugsmarijuanapolicycenter_img But the hair test doesn’t do these tasks as well as it needs to, according to two lawsuits on behalf of Boston police officers fired between 2001 and 2006 after drug testing on their hair turned up positive for cocaine.The plaintiffs denied that they used cocaine in state and federal lawsuits filed in 2012. In the state case, which involves six officers, the plaintiffs argued that the test is not accurate enough to alone determine drug use. Last month, the Massachusetts Appeals Court ruled for the officers’ reinstatement, upholding an earlier decision that “the risk of a false positive test was great enough to require additional evidence to terminate an officer.”The federal lawsuit, on the other hand, contends that hair testing is subject to possible racial bias. The case was heard by the Federal Court of Appeals for the First Circuit last month and is now awaiting a ruling.“The hair test cannot distinguish between ingested drugs and environmental exposure,” said Ivan Espinoza-Madrigal, executive director of the Lawyers’ Committee for Civil Rights and Economic Justice, which is representing the officers in the federal lawsuit.Like cigarettes, smoked drugs such as marijuana, crystal meth, and crack cocaine can contaminate the air — and hair — around them, according to a report from the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA). The report also points out that close contact with a drug user could also contaminate hair.Labs are supposed to take steps to prevent that kind of contamination, said Sabra Botch-Jones, a forensic toxicologist and researcher at Boston University School of Medicine. Pre-washing the hair is “supposed to take away external contaminants or anything that would affect or impede analysis,” Botch-Jones said.She added, however, that decontaminating a hair sample can be tricky, since cleaning procedures can vary depending on which drugs are being tested for. “You don’t want to perform so many wash steps that you destroy what you’re looking for.”And sometimes, it might be impossible to wash drug residues from hair.“You can wash it off, if it’s fresh,” said David Kidwell, a chemist and researcher who has been a paid consultant on court cases, including the Boston police case. “But if it sits there awhile, you can’t. Cocaine, in particular, degrades into the hair to the point where the hair can look like a drug user’s hair.”The role of melaninAnd different hair types bind drugs differently, some studies have found, due to the concentration of melanin, the pigment that darkens hair.A 1998 study, for example, found that people with dark hair retained more cocaine in their hair than people with lighter hair colors. In that study, although all subjects had received the same dose of cocaine, “the non-Caucasians in this study had between 2 and 12 times as much [cocaine] in their hair as did Caucasians.” Another study, of hair samples mixed with cocaine in the lab, found that dark hair did bind more cocaine than light hair, but African-American hair was roughly the same in this regard as brown/black hair on white individuals.A 2010 study concluded that “melanin content plays an important role in the degree of incorporation of morphine, codeine and their metabolites into hair.” That’s also true for amphetamines, suggested a 2012 study.And African-American hair may be more likely to be damaged in such a way that the melanin is accessible.“The cuticle [the outer part of the hair shaft] of African-Americans’ hair tends to be more damageable, and more damaged,” Kidwell said. “They put stuff on their hair, like emulsifiers and humectants, that allow the drugs in the environment to penetrate the hair more easily, especially if they’re making their hair straight with heat or chemicals.”In the case of the Boston Police Department, more than four times as many black officers tested positive via the hair test, from 1999 to 2006, as did white officers — a figure that indicates “we can be almost certain that the difference in outcomes associated with race over that period cannot be attributed to chance alone,” the appeals court wrote in a 2014 decision on the case. However, the police department pointed out that no Asian-Americans on the force had ever had a positive test.That decision sent the case back to the trial court, which ruled against the officers. It has now returned to the appeals court. Newsletters Sign up for Morning Rounds Your daily dose of news in health and medicine. Leave this field empty if you’re human: Sample said he is familiar with research finding hair testing to be discriminatory.“I’m not sure I buy that,” said Sample. “I don’t believe those studies represent real-world conditions,” he said, pointing to the fact that many studies weren’t done on intact hair.Sample acknowledged the melanin issue but said, “That’s not really an ethnic bias, but a hair-color bias, affecting dark hair. And it’s only for certain drugs, like cocaine.”He insisted that the hair test does not discriminate. And a number of other court cases have found similarly, allowing hair testing to stand in job terminations and revocations of parole.The question of the test’s accuracy is likely to take on even more relevance, however, as HHS considers whether to accept hair samples for federal drug testing programs. Public comment on the proposed rule by SAMHSA concluded in June 2015, and a final rule is forthcoming.The technology of hair testing has dramatically improved, according to a presentation made by drug testing expert J. Michael Walsh to the group in 2013. “The methods have improved significantly over the last 25 years,” he told meeting attendees, according to a transcript of the presentation. “Lab performance has improved, the ability to detect small or minute amounts of drugs has improved with enhanced technology, and the criteria for what constitutes a positive test has also changed dramatically.”Still, later in the presentation, he acknowledged high on the list of outstanding “scientific concerns” the issues of environmental contamination and hair color bias.Some attorneys and scientists suggest that hair testing might best be used for clinical purposes, not forensic ones. Kidwell said that while hair testing might be useful in research, it’s less useful in deciding whether someone should get or keep a job.“It’s best to use hair as a screening test and then follow up with urine testing,” he said. “And don’t take punitive measures based on hair testing.” Privacy Policy Scientists discover why our hair thins as we age Related:last_img read more

In Pictures: Mountmellick celebrate winning the junior hurling championship in style

first_img In Pictures: Mountmellick celebrate winning the junior hurling championship in style RELATED ARTICLESMORE FROM AUTHOR The Mountmellick GAA women were also out celebrating tonight, as their O’Moores camogie side claimed their second ever title on Friday night.SEE ALSO – Slieve Bloom are crowned IHC champions as the Conroy brothers do it again Twitter Facebook Pinterest WhatsApp Previous articleSlieve Bloom are crowned IHC champions as the Conroy brothers do it againNext articleThe Harps have too much for 14-man Rosenallis Julie Anne MillerLaoisToday’s main photographer Julie Anne Miller is a graduate from GMIT. Despite her young age, Julie Anne has years of experience in the food industry. She has worked in Tynan’s at the Storeyard in Portlaoise, Ballymaloe House in Cork and Beach Point Country Club in New York. She has also contributed a food column to the Irish Country Living section of the Irish Farmers Journal. She’s willing to talk about anything – except football! Home Sport GAA In Pictures: Mountmellick celebrate winning the junior hurling championship in style SportGAAHurling Twitter By Julie Anne Miller – 22nd September 2018 Council center_img TAGSCastletown v MountmellickLaois JHCLaois JHC ‘A’ 2018Mountmellick GAA WhatsApp Community Community Charlie Flanagan on Electric Picnic: ‘I’d ask organisers to consult with community leaders’ Five Laois monuments to receive almost €200,000 in government funding Pinterest New Arles road opens but disquiet over who was invited to official opening Facebook Mountmellick hurlers have continued on their rising tide, after claiming back-to-back championships in the junior B in 2017 and this year in the junior ‘A’ division.Mountmellick blazed a trail in the Junior B last year and have carried that form in here with wins over Borris-Kilcotton, Portlaoise and The Harps.Donnacha Hartnett put in a man of the match performance for his side – with Mick Bermingham and Nigel Murphy following suit with powerful scoring for Chris Hartnett’s team.Castletown’s John Paul Bennett pulled off some saves Anthony Nash would be proud of, but the scoring power of Mick Bermingham, Donnacha Hartnett and co turned out to be the difference in the end.FInals galore for Mountmellick Mountmellick are now gearing up towards another final – their intermediate football clash with Courtwood.last_img read more

Box by Box: How the Graiguecullen-Portarlington area voted in the 2020 General Election

first_imgHome News Box by Box: How the Graiguecullen-Portarlington area voted in the 2020 General… NewsPolitics Box by Box: How the Graiguecullen-Portarlington area voted in the 2020 General Election Electric Picnic Facebook Pinterest WhatsApp Facebook The Graiguecullen-Portarlington Municipal District in Laois voted overwhelmingly in favour of the three outgoing TDs from the county in last weekend’s General Election as Brian Stanley (Sinn Féin), Sean Fleming (Fianna Fáil) and Charlie Flanagan (Fine Gael) got over 75% of the vote between them.Though Brian Stanley romped home with 16,000 votes across the Laois-Offaly constituency and he did receive more first preferences here than any other candidate, there was less than 100 votes between him and Fianna Fáil’s Sean Fleming according to the Fine Gael tallies that have been seen by LaoisToday.According to the tallies, Brian Stanley got 2,340 votes in this area ahead of Sean Fleming who got 2,252. Charlie Flanagan was next with almost 1,400.In all there were 24 polling stations in that part of Laois, down on what there was in 2016 due to the re-location of the Portarlington and Killenard voters to Kildare South.Figures from 22 of the 24 tallies are available with no figures inputted for one of the boxes in Emo and one of the boxes in Timahoe. Pinterest TAGS2020 General ElectionBox by BoxGraiguecullen Portarlington Municipal District Twitter Twittercenter_img WhatsApp This was more than likely due to the the tally teams at the count centre missing out on recording this data for some reason.Sean Fleming came out on top in 10 of the 22 boxes, with Brian Stanley first in eight of the boxes and Charlie Flanagan in four of them.Crucially for Brian Stanley he comfortably topped the poll in the four boxes in Graiguecullen, the district’s most populated district. He broke 40% in all four boxes (and almost 50% in one of them). He was also just under 40% in one of the boxes in Stradbally.Sean Fleming topped the poll in many of the rural areas towards the south of the county – like Wolfhill, Ballyadams and Barrowhouse – close to his home place in The Swan.Charlie Flanagan got more first preferences than any of the other candidates in Killeen, Rath, The Heath and one of the two boxes in Emo.Total areaBrian Stanley (Sinn Féin) – 2,340 (29.55%)Sean Fleming (Fianna Fáil) – 2,252 (28.44%)Charlie Flanagan (Fine Gael) – 1,371 (17.31%)Pippa Hackett (Green Party) – 453 (5.72%)Pauline Flanagan (Fianna Fáil) – 348 (4.39%)Noel Tuohy (Labour) – 274 (3.46%)Marcella Corcoran-Kennedy – 234 (2.95%)Stephen Tynan (People Before Profit) – 142 (1.79%)Barry Cowen (People Before Profit) – 140 (1.76%)Carol Nolan (Independent) – 130 (1.64%)Noel O’Rourke (Renua) – 63 (0.79%)John Daly (Independent) – 54 (0.68%)Ken Smollen (Independent) – 47 (0.59%)Peter Ormond (Fianna Fail) – 39 (0.49%)John Leahy (Independent) – 31 (0.39%)Arles NSSean Fleming (Fianna Fáil) – 168Brian Stanley (Sinn Féin) – 109Charlie Flanagan (Fine Gael) – 83Pippa Hackett (Green Party) – 28Pauline Flanagan (Fianna Fail) – 20Marcella Corcoran-Kennedy (Fine Gael) – 17Noel O Rourke (Renua) – 10Carol Nolan (Independant) – 6Barry Cowen (Fianna Fáil) – 5Noel Tuohy (Labour) – 3Stephan Tynan  (Solidarity-People Before Profit) – 3Peter Ormond (Fianna Fáil) – 3John Leahy (Independent) – 1John Daly (The National Party) – 1Ken Smollen (Irish Democratic Party) – 1Ballyadams NS Sean Fleming (Fianna Fáil) – 169Brian Stanley (Sinn Féin) – 95Charlie Flanagan (Fine Gael) – 85Pippa Hackett (Green Party) – 31Pauline Flanagan (Fiann Fail) – 17Marcella Corcoran-Kennedy (Fine Gael) – 15Noel Tuohy (Labour) – 14Stephen Tynan (Solidarity-People Before Profit) – 9Ken Smollen (Irish Democratic Party)- 4Barry Cowen (Fianna Fail) – 4Noel O’Rourke (Renua) – 3Peter Ormond (Fianna Fail) – 1Carol Nolan (Independent) – 1John Leahy (Independent) – 0John Daly (National Party) – 0Ballylinan 1Sean Fleming (Fianna Fáil) – 154Brian Stanley (Sinn Féin) – 144Charlie Flanagan (Fine Gael) – 57Pippa Hackett (Green Party) – 22Noel Tuohy (Labour) – 21Marcella Corcoran-Kennedy (Fine Gael) – 13Carol Nolan (Independent) – 9Stephen Tynan (Solidarity-People Before Profit) – 7John Leahy (Independent) – 6Barry Cowen (Fianna Fáil) – 6Pauline Flanagan (Fianna Fáil) – 6Noel O’Rourke (Renua) – 5Ken Smollen (Irish Democratic party) – 2Peter Ormond (Fianna Fáil) – 0John Daly (National Party) – 0Ballylinan 2Sean Fleming (Fianna Fáil) – 92Brian Stanley (Sinn Féin) – 72Charlie Flanagan (Fine Gael) – 39Pippa Hackett (Green Party) – 18Pauline Flanagan (Fianna Fáil) – 18Noel Tuohy (Labour) – 14Marcella Corcoran-Kennedy (Fine Gael) – 5Peter Ormond (Fianna Fáil) – 3Carol Nolan (Independent) – 2Noel O’Rourke (Renua) – 2Stephen Tynan (Solidarity-People Before Profit) – 1Barry Cowen (Fianna Fáil) – 1John Daly (National Party) – 1John Leahy (Independent) – 1Ken Smollen (Irish Democratic Party) – 0Barrowhouse NSSean Fleming (Fianna Fáil) – 162Brian Stanley (Sinn Féin) – 69Charlie Flanagan (Fine Gael) – 61Pippa Hackett (Green Party) – 20Marcella Corcoran-Kennedy (Fine Gael) – 15Noel Tuohy (Labour) – 6Pauline Flanagan (Fianna Fáil) – 5John Daly (National Party) – 5Carol Nolan (Independent) – 5Stephen Tynan (Solidarity-People Before Profit) – 4Noel O’Rourke (Renua) – 2Barry Cowen (Fianna Fáil) – 2John Leahy (Independent) – 2Peter Ormond (Fianna Fáil) – 1Ken Smollen (Irish Democratic Party) – 1Emo New School 1Charlie Flanagan (Fine Gael) – 76Brian Stanley (Sinn Féin) – 59Sean Fleming (Fianna Fáil) – 47Pauline Flanagan (Fianna Fáil) – 27Pippa Hackett (Green Party) – 25Carol Nolan (Independent) – 21Marcella Corcoran-Kennedy (Fine Gael) – 13Barry Cowen (Fianna Fáil) – 12Noel Tuohy (Labour) – 12Stephen Tynan (Solidarity-People Before Profit) – 5Ken Smollen (Irish Democratic Party) – 4Peter Ormond (Fianna Fáil) – 1John Leahy (Independent) – 1Noel O’Rourke (Renua) – 0John Daly (National Party) – 0Emo New School 2No Tally AvailableGraiguecullen 1Brian Stanley (Sinn Féin) – 208Sean Fleming (Fianna Fáil) – 81Charlie Flanagan (Fine Gael) – 37Pippa Hackett (Green Party) – 27Marcella Corcoran-Kennedy (Fine Gael) – 13Noel Tuohy (Labour) – 10Stephen Tynan (Solidarity-People Before Profit) – 10Pauline Flanagan (Fianna Fáil) – 9Barry Cowen (Fianna Fáil) – 8Carol Nolan (Independent) – 7John Daly (National Party) – 4Ken Smollen (Irish Democratic Party) – 2John Leahy (Independent) – 1Noel O’Rourke (Renua) – 1Peter Ormond (Fianna Fáil) – 0Graiguecullen 2Brian Stanley (Sinn Féin) – 88Sean Fleming (Fianna Fáil) – 64Charlie Flanagan (Fine Gael) – 47Pippa Hackett (Green Party) – 21Marcella Corcoran-Kennedy (Fine Gael) – 16Noel Tuohy (Labour) – 6Stephen Tynan (Solidarity-People Before Profit) – 6Pauline Flanagan (Fianna Fáil) – 6Barry Cowen (Fianna Fáil) – 6Noel O’Rourke (Renua) – 5Carol Nolan (Independent) – 4John Daly (National Party) – 2Ken Smollen (Irish Democratic Party) – 2Peter Ormond (Fianna Fáil) – 1John Leahy (Independent) – 0Graiguecullen 3Brian Stanley (Sinn Féin) – 151Sean Fleming (Fianna Fáil) – 97Charlie Flanagan (Fine Gael) – 33Pippa Hackett (Green Party) – 16Stephen Tynan (Solidarity-People Before Profit) – 11Pauline Flanagan (Fianna Fáil) – 9John Daly (National Party) – 6Marcella Corcoran-Kennedy (Fine Gael) – 5Barry Cowen (Fianna Fáil) – 4Noel Tuohy (Labour) – 3Noel O’Rourke (Renua) – 3Ken Smollen (Irish Democratic Party) – 3Carol Nolan (Independent) – 2John Leahy (Independent) – 1Peter Ormond (Fianna Fáil) – 0Graiguecullen 4Brian Stanley (Sinn Fein) – 145Sean Fleming (Fianna Fail) – 70Charlie Flanagan (Fine Gael) – 33Pippa Hackett (Green Party) – 17Noel Tuohy (Labour) – 10Pauline Flanagan (Fianna Fail) – 9Stephan Tynan (Solidarity-People Before Profit) – 7Marcella Corcoran-Kennedy (Fine Gael) – 6Noel O’Rourke (Renua) – 6Barry Cowen (Fianna Fail) – 5Carol Nolan (Independent) – 5John Daly (National Party) – 2Peter Ormond (Fianna Fail) – 1Ken Smollen (Irish Democratic Party) – 0John Leahy (Independent) – 0Killeen NSCharlie Flanagan (Fine Gael) – 114Brian Stanley (Sinn Féin) – 94Sean Fleming (Fianna Fáil) – 94Marcella Corcoran-Kennedy (Fine Gael) – 19Pippa Hackett (Green Party) – 18Stephen Tynan (Solidarity-People Before Profit) – 7Pauline Flanagan (Fianna Fáil) – 6Barry Cowen (Fianna Fáil) – 6Noel Tuohy (Labour) – 4Noel O’Rourke (Renua) – 3Carol Nolan (Independent) – 3Ken Smollen (Irish Democratic Party) – 1John Daly (National Party) – 1John Leahy (Independent) – 1Peter Ormond (Fianna Fáil) – 0The HeathCharlie Flanagan (Fine Gael) – 100Brian Stanley (Sinn Fein) – 76Sean Fleming  (Fianna Fail) – 66Pauline Flanagan (Fianna Fail) – 34Noel Tuohy (Labour) – 22Pippa Hackett (Green Party) – 12Marcella Corcoran-Kennedy (Fine Gael) – 7Barry Cowen (Fianna Fail)- 7Carol Nolan (Independent) – 6John Leahy (Independent) – 4Stephan Tynan (Solidarity-People Before Profit) – 3Noel O’Rourke (Renua) – 3Peter Ormond (Fianna Fail) – 2Ken Smollen (Irish Democratic Party) – 1John Daly (National Party) – 1Mayo 1Sean Fleming  (Fianna Fail) – 141Brian Stanley (Sinn Fein) – 105Charlie Flanagan (Fine Gael) – 34Pippa Hackett (Green Party) – 9Carol Nolan (Independent) – 8Barry Cowen (Fianna Fail)- 6Stephan Tynan (Solidarity-People Before Profit) – 6Pauline Flanagan (Fianna Fail) – 5Noel Tuohy (Labour) – 5Marcella Corcoran-Kennedy (Fine Gael) – 5John Daly (National Party) – 3Noel O’Rourke (Renua) – 3Peter Ormond (Fianna Fail) – 0Ken Smollen (Irish Democratic Party) – 0John Leahy (Independent) – 0Mayo 2Sean Fleming  (Fianna Fail) – 102Brian Stanley (Sinn Fein) – 87Charlie Flanagan (Fine Gael) – 55Pippa Hackett (Green Party) – 12Noel Tuohy (Labour) – 10Marcella Corcoran-Kennedy (Fine Gael) – 9Pauline Flanagan (Fianna Fail) – 8Stephan Tynan (Solidarity-People Before Profit) – 7John Daly (National Party) – 5Noel O’Rourke (Renua) – 3Carol Nolan (Independent) – 3Ken Smollen (Irish Democratic Party) – 3Barry Cowen (Fianna Fail)- 2John Leahy (Independent) – 2Peter Ormond (Fianna Fail) – 0WolfhillSean Fleming  (Fianna Fail) – 131Brian Stanley (Sinn Fein) – 113Charlie Flanagan (Fine Gael) – 54Pippa Hackett (Green Party) – 17Noel Tuohy (Labour) – 13Marcella Corcoran-Kennedy (Fine Gael) – 7Stephan Tynan (Solidarity-People Before Profit) – 7Barry Cowen (Fianna Fail)- 4Pauline Flanagan (Fianna Fail) – 3Carol Nolan (Independent) – 3Ken Smollen (Irish Democratic Party) – 3John Leahy (Independent) – 2John Daly (National Party) – 1Noel O’Rourke (Renua) – 0Peter Ormond (Fianna Fail) – 0Killeshin 1Brian Stanley (Sinn Fein) – 95Sean Fleming  (Fianna Fail) – 90Charlie Flanagan (Fine Gael) – 31Pippa Hackett (Green Party) – 17Pauline Flanagan (Fianna Fail) – 7Marcella Corcoran-Kennedy (Fine Gael) – 5Stephan Tynan (Solidarity-People Before Profit) – 4Barry Cowen (Fianna Fail)- 4Carol Nolan (Independent) – 2Noel O’Rourke (Renua) – 2John Daly (National Party) – 2Noel Tuohy (Labour) – 1Peter Ormond (Fianna Fail) – 1Ken Smollen (Irish Democratic Party) – 1John Leahy (Independent) – 0Killeshin 2Sean Fleming  (Fianna Fail) – 90Brian Stanley (Sinn Fein) – 80Charlie Flanagan (Fine Gael) – 46Pippa Hackett (Green Party) – 44Marcella Corcoran-Kennedy (Fine Gael) – 18Stephan Tynan (Solidarity-People Before Profit) – 11Noel Tuohy (Labour) – 10Pauline Flanagan (Fianna Fail) – 6Carol Nolan (Independent) – 6Barry Cowen (Fianna Fail)- 5Noel O’Rourke (Renua) – 4John Leahy (Independent) – 2John Daly (National Party) – 1Peter Ormond (Fianna Fail) – 1Ken Smollen (Irish Democratic Party) – 0RathCharlie Flanagan (Fine Gael) – 84Brian Stanley (Sinn Fein) – 64Sean Fleming  (Fianna Fail) – 54Pauline Flanagan (Fianna Fail) – 32Pippa Hackett (Green Party) – 22Carol Nolan (Independent) – 21Barry Cowen (Fianna Fail)- 13Stephan Tynan (Solidarity-People Before Profit) – 10Marcella Corcoran-Kennedy (Fine Gael) – 9Noel Tuohy (Labour) – 8Peter Ormond (Fianna Fail) – 6Ken Smollen (Irish Democratic Party) – 6Noel O’Rourke (Renua) – 3John Daly (National Party) – 1John Leahy (Independent) – 0Stradbally 1Brian Stanley (Sinn Fein) – 156Sean Fleming  (Fianna Fail) – 105Noel Tuohy (Labour) – 36Pauline Flanagan (Fianna Fail) – 24Pippa Hackett (Green Party) – 13Charlie Flanagan (Fine Gael) – 11Barry Cowen (Fianna Fail)- 11John Daly (National Party) – 11Stephan Tynan (Solidarity-People Before Profit) – 7Marcella Corcoran-Kennedy (Fine Gael) – 7Carol Nolan (Independent) – 3John Leahy (Independent) – 3Peter Ormond (Fianna Fail) – 2Ken Smollen (Irish Democratic Party) – 2Noel O’Rourke (Renua) – 2Stradbally 2Brian Stanley (Sinn Fein) – 159Charlie Flanagan (Fine Gael) – 132Sean Fleming  (Fianna Fail) – 118Noel Tuohy (Labour) – 29Pauline Flanagan (Fianna Fail) – 23Barry Cowen (Fianna Fail)- 14Pippa Hackett (Green Party) – 13Marcella Corcoran-Kennedy (Fine Gael) – 10Peter Ormond (Fianna Fail) – 8Stephan Tynan (Solidarity-People Before Profit) – 7Carol Nolan (Independent) – 6John Leahy (Independent) – 4Ken Smollen (Irish Democratic Party) – 4John Daly (National Party) – 3Noel O’Rourke (Renua) – 1VicarstownBrian Stanley (Sinn Fein) – 98Charlie Flanagan (Fine Gael) – 88Sean Fleming  (Fianna Fail) – 78Pauline Flanagan (Fianna Fail) – 29Pippa Hackett (Green Party) – 25Noel Tuohy (Labour) – 19Marcella Corcoran-Kennedy (Fine Gael) – 11Barry Cowen (Fianna Fail) – 9Carol Nolan (Independent) – 5Noel O’Rourke (Renua) – 4Ken Smollen (Irish Democratic Party) – 3Stephan Tynan (Solidarity-People Before Profit) – 2John Daly (National Party) – 1John Leahy (Independent) – 0Peter Ormond (Fianna Fail) – 0Timahoe 1No Tally available.Timahoe 2Sean Fleming  (Fianna Fail) – 79Brian Stanley (Sinn Fein) – 73Charlie Flanagan (Fine Gael) – 71Pauline Flanagan (Fianna Fail) – 45Pippa Hackett (Green Party) – 26Noel Tuohy (Labour) – 18Marcella Corcoran-Kennedy (Fine Gael) – 9Peter Ormond (Fianna Fail) – 8Barry Cowen (Fianna Fail) – 6Ken Smollen (Irish Democratic Party) – 4Stephan Tynan (Solidarity-People Before Profit) – 4John Daly (National Party) – 3Carol Nolan (Independent) – 2John Leahy (Independent) – 1Noel O’Rourke (Renua) – 0SEE ALSO – Box by box: How your area voted in the Portlaoise Municipal District in the 2020 General Election Previous articleNew to the Area: From a copywriter in Wiltshire to a glampsite owner in LaoisNext articleTalking Politics: Observations on Laois-Offaly, Kildare South & a replayed election? Steven Millerhttp://www.laoistoday.ieSteven Miller is owner and managing editor of LaoisToday.ie. From Laois, Steven studied Journalism in DCU and has 14 years experience in the media, almost 10 of those in an editorial role. Husband of Emily, father of William and Lillian, he’s happiest when he’s telling stories or kicking a point. By Steven Miller – 15th February 2020 2020 U-15 ‘B’ glory for Ballyroan-Abbey following six point win over Killeshin GAA Bizarre situation as Ben Brennan breaks up Fianna Fáil-Fine Gael arrangement to take Graiguecullen-Portarlington vice-chair role Laois Councillor ‘amazed’ at Electric Picnic decision to apply for later date for 2021 festival News RELATED ARTICLESMORE FROM AUTHORlast_img read more

ASC serves java during Fraud Prevention Month

first_img “When it comes to investing, knowledge is power – it is vital that Albertans take the time to do their homework before investing,” said Alison Trollope, director, communications and investor education for the ASC. “Many people don’t know how to check out an investment or where to look for resources on how to become an educated investor.” According to a recent ASC survey, only one quarter of Albertans have ever checked the background of a person selling or offering them investments. In addition, 28% of Albertans are unaware that introductions to suspected fraudulent investments commonly come from friends, neighbours, co-workers or family members. The CheckFirst Café recently made its debut at the Calgary Home and Garden Show, with a follow-up appearance scheduled for the Edmonton Home and Garden Show between March 19 and 22. At these events, ASC representatives are on hand to educate visitors about the importance of doing research and asking the right questions before investing. The CheckFirst Café will also take over a Calgary coffee shop on the morning of Mar. 5. Customers will be treated to “lost dream lattes”, “fraud-accinos” and other complimentary investment-themed beverages, while receiving information on how to check into investments. Imposters among us, CSA warns Keywords Fraud Related news Tessie Sanci Retail trading surge on regulators’ radar, Vingoe sayscenter_img Facebook LinkedIn Twitter Share this article and your comments with peers on social media DoJ launches task force to tackle Covid-19 fraud The Alberta Securities Commission (ASC) is kicking off March’s Fraud Prevention Month with its “CheckFirst Café,” a pop-up coffee shop. The café is a part of the ASC’s ongoing “CheckFirst” campaign to help Albertans avoid investment fraud and point them to resources they can use to protect themselves and their money. last_img read more

34 Young People to Receive Duke of Edinburgh Gold Award

first_imgFacebookTwitterWhatsAppEmail The Earl of Wessex, Prince Edward, will on Tuesday (Feb.6) present gold awards to some 34 young people from high schools and community groups across the island, for outstanding achievement in skill areas, community service, recreation and expedition.The presentations will be made at the Duke of Edinburgh’s Awards ceremony slated for King’s House at 3:45 p.m.The Duke of Edinburgh’s Award is a voluntary non-competitive programme of practical, cultural and adventurous activities designed to support the personal and social development of young people age 14 to 25 years.National Director of the Duke of Edinburgh’s Award Jamaica, Vernon Derby, told JIS News that the programme “gives young people a chance to work with each other.they learn to work as a team, and to develop character and leadership skills.” They also learn a skill or hobby, participate in recreational activities or give service to their communities.The Duke of Edinburgh’s Award is a worldwide programme, which started in Britain in 1956 as a means of allowing young people to become more balanced persons, by engaging in tasks that foster independence and the development of self worth.There are three categories of award, each requiring an increasing level of commitment and effort. The gold award, the highest honour, is presented to persons 16 years and older, who have diligently completed eight months to two years of activities and exhibit responsible adult behaviour and citizenship.Youngsters 15 years or above may enter the silver award category and must be engaged in tasks for 12 to 18 months, while persons aged 14 years and over may gain the bronze award, which can be achieved within six months to a year.Mr. Derby noted that the programme had grown tremendously over its 50 years of existence and was in more than 100 countries including most Caribbean regions. Jamaica has been involved in the programme since 1961.The Earl of Wessex is chairman of the International Council for the Duke of Edinburgh’s Award International Association. 34 Young People to Receive Duke of Edinburgh Gold Award UncategorizedFebruary 3, 2007 Related34 Young People to Receive Duke of Edinburgh Gold Award Related34 Young People to Receive Duke of Edinburgh Gold Awardcenter_img Related34 Young People to Receive Duke of Edinburgh Gold Award Advertisementslast_img read more

Americas Society Hosts Caribbean Literary Scholars

first_imgRelatedAmericas Society Hosts Caribbean Literary Scholars FacebookTwitterWhatsAppEmail The Literature Department of the Americas Society recently hosted readings by Caribbean literary scholars Lorna Goodison and Caryl Phillips, at its headquarters in Manhattan, New York.Ms. Goodison read from her rich poetry collection, which explores her family history, the splendor of her native Jamaica and the African/European strands of Caribbean society. Among the poems she recited were ‘Controlling the Silver’ and ‘Turn Thanks’.Mr. Phillips, a native of St. Kitts, who now resides in New York, also read excerpts from his works ‘Cambridge’ and ‘Dancing in the Dark’. Mr. Phillips’ writings examine the legacy of the trans-Atlantic slave trade and its consequences for the African Diaspora.Daniel Shapiro, Director of Literature at the Americas Society, who chaired the event, said that the readings provided a sample of the quality literature being produced in the Caribbean Diaspora.The Consulate General in New York, the Inter-Americas/Society of Arts and Letters of the Americas, and the Research Institute for the Study of Man, collaborated in organizing the event. Americas Society Hosts Caribbean Literary Scholars UncategorizedMay 19, 2007 RelatedAmericas Society Hosts Caribbean Literary Scholarscenter_img RelatedAmericas Society Hosts Caribbean Literary Scholars Advertisementslast_img read more

Cameroon: Authorities urged to seek justice for recent deadly attacks

first_imgCameroon: Authorities urged to seek justice for recent deadly attacks The United NationsUN Secretary-General António Guterres has urged authorities in Cameroon to take steps to prosecute perpetrators behind two recent deadly attacks in the Anglophone provinces of the country, his Spokesperson said on Friday.In a note responding to questions from journalists, Stéphane Dujarric said the UN chief is concerned about persistent violence in the North-West and South-West regions, mainly affecting civilians.“He takes note of the willingness of the Government of Cameroon to launch an investigation into the 10 January incident in Mautu (in the South-West) that reportedly left at least 10 civilians dead”, said the statement.The Secretary-General also condemned an attack on the convoy of the prefect of Momo department in North-West Region which occurred last week.Mr. Guterres has extended his deepest condolences to the families of the victims and wished a speedy recovery to the wounded.“The Secretary-General urges the Cameroonian authorities to take all necessary measures to swiftly bring the perpetrators of both attacks to justice and enhance the protection of civilians”, the note said.Cameroon is a predominantly Francophone country, located in West Africa, and separatists in the English-speaking regions have been fighting to create their own state.The UN chief also reiterated his call on all parties to cease hostilities and engage in a political dialogue to end the crisis. /UN News Release. This material comes from the originating organization and may be of a point-in-time nature, edited for clarity, style and length. View in full here. Why?Well, unlike many news organisations, we have no sponsors, no corporate or ideological interests. We don’t put up a paywall – we believe in free access to information of public interest. Media ownership in Australia is one of the most concentrated in the world (Learn more). Since the trend of consolidation is and has historically been upward, fewer and fewer individuals or organizations control increasing shares of the mass media in our country. According to independent assessment, about 98% of the media sector is held by three conglomerates. This tendency is not only totally unacceptable, but also to a degree frightening). Learn more hereWe endeavour to provide the community with real-time access to true unfiltered news firsthand from primary sources. It is a bumpy road with all sorties of difficulties. We can only achieve this goal together. Our website is open to any citizen journalists and organizations who want to contribute, publish high-quality insights or send media releases to improve public access to impartial information. You and we have the right to know, learn, read, hear what and how we deem appropriate.Your support is greatly appreciated. All donations are kept completely private and confidential.Thank you in advance!Tags:Africa, Attack, Cameroon, crisis, dialogue, Government, incident, investigation, justice, launch, Secretary-General, UN, violencelast_img read more

Nightingale court opens in Bolton stadium

first_imgNightingale court opens in Bolton stadium temporary court set up at University of Bolton StadiumNightingale court to serve local community while providing vital financial boost for the Wandererspart of government’s plan to ensure justice continues throughout the pandemicThe £25 million all-seater University of Bolton stadium will swap referees with judges as it transformed into a Nightingale court. It will host two courtrooms that will hear non-custodial criminal cases and be able to issue fines and community service orders. Any cases deemed serious enough for time in prison will be sent back to a Crown Court for sentencing.Cases will be heard in rooms beneath the terraces of the Nat Lofthouse Stand (East) and West Stand, which are normally used for conferences. The venue will help to free up space at the nearby Crown Court for more jury trials – reducing delays and delivering speedier justice for people across the north-west. It will also provide the club with a vital cash-injection while the turnstiles remain closed due to lockdown restrictions.The versatile stadium has previously hosted concerts for the likes of Oasis, Elton John, and Coldplay. It will now provide some of the 60 Nightingale courtrooms which will be available nationwide by the end of the month – set up by the government to boost capacity and alleviate pressures on the courts and tribunals system caused by the pandemic.Courts Minister, Lord Wolfson QC, said:This new Nightingale court is in the heart of the local community and will help to deliver swifter justice for people across Bolton.Courts have been established in cathedrals, hotels, theatres, and now football stadiums to help us tackle the delays caused by the pandemic. This innovative approach is already increasing the caseload going through our courts, while pumping much-needed cash into businesses which have taken a financial hit over the last 12 months.A Bolton Wanderers Football Club spokesperson said:The club is pleased to support Bolton Crown Court by enabling the University of Bolton stadium to be used as a Nightingale court.As a versatile venue which is at the heart of Bolton, we are proud to be once again supporting our local community during what has been a challenging 12 months for all.The move is part of a £113m government investment to support courts and tribunals during coronavirus (COVID-19). It includes recruiting 1,600 extra staff, investment in further technology, and on-site safety precautions such as plexiglass screens. This is on top of the £142m being spent to speed up technological improvements and modernise courtrooms. The impact of these measures is already being seen:England and Wales are believed to be the first comparable major jurisdiction in the world to resume jury trials, with hundreds now being listed each weekoutstanding cases in the magistrates’ courts have fallen by around 50,000 since the peak last summerwhile the number of disposals continues to be just under pre-COVID-19 levels, the Crown Court continues to see an increase in the number of trials listedmore than 20,000 hearings using remote technology are taking place each week – compared to around 550 in March 2020 – a 4,000% riseThe decision to keep courts and tribunals open during the pandemic has had a tangible impact on people’s lives. Over 9,000 court orders were issued to protect children from female genital mutilation, forced marriage, and domestic abuse between April and September 2020.Meanwhile, a major £40m investment announced recently will go towards specialist help for vulnerable victims – funding helplines and the recruitment of more counsellors. This comes as an extra £337m was confirmed in the recent Spending Review to deliver swifter justice and support victims in 2021/22, while £76m will further increase capacity in family courts and tribunals.NotesMore than £113m is being invested in a range of measures to tackle the impact of COVID-19, including the recruitment of 1,600 additional staff and opening more Nightingale courts.We’re also spending £153m to improve court and tribunal buildings – the biggest single investment in court estate maintenance for more than 20 years.This progress will be bolstered by an extra £337m the government is spending next year to deliver swifter justice and support victims, while an additional £76 million will further increase capacity in family courts and tribunals.Details on measures to keep courts safe, secure and clean.More details on the Nightingale courtrooms in operation. /Public Release. This material comes from the originating organization and may be of a point-in-time nature, edited for clarity, style and length. View in full here. Why?Well, unlike many news organisations, we have no sponsors, no corporate or ideological interests. We don’t put up a paywall – we believe in free access to information of public interest. Media ownership in Australia is one of the most concentrated in the world (Learn more). Since the trend of consolidation is and has historically been upward, fewer and fewer individuals or organizations control increasing shares of the mass media in our country. According to independent assessment, about 98% of the media sector is held by three conglomerates. This tendency is not only totally unacceptable, but also to a degree frightening). Learn more hereWe endeavour to provide the community with real-time access to true unfiltered news firsthand from primary sources. It is a bumpy road with all sorties of difficulties. We can only achieve this goal together. Our website is open to any citizen journalists and organizations who want to contribute, publish high-quality insights or send media releases to improve public access to impartial information. You and we have the right to know, learn, read, hear what and how we deem appropriate.Your support is greatly appreciated. All donations are kept completely private and confidential.Thank you in advance!Tags:Bolton, community, community service, coronavirus, counsellors, Courts, Criminal, family court, football, Government, Investment, Minister, operation, spending, technology, UK, UK Government, universitylast_img read more

FedDev Ontario investment helps North York-based fabricator expand into next-generation telecommunications and 5G markets

first_imgFedDev Ontario investment helps North York-based fabricator expand into next-generation telecommunications and 5G markets From: Federal Economic Development Agency for Southern OntarioToday, Marie-France Lalonde, Parliamentary Secretary to the Minister of Economic Development and Official Languages (FedDev Ontario and Official Languages), announced a FedDev Ontario repayable contribution of nearly $850,000 for Candor Industries Inc. (Candor), to scale up and expand operations and create 15 highly-skilled jobs.May 20, 2021 – North York, OntarioAs Ontario’s economy evolves from the impact of COVID-19, many manufacturers in the region are embracing technology to seize new opportunities, become more productive and stay competitive. The Government of Canada continues to make investments in leading manufacturers to protect and create jobs and set the course for long-term growth, while making industries cleaner and the economy greener along the way.Today, Marie-France Lalonde, Parliamentary Secretary to the Minister of Economic Development and Official Languages (FedDev Ontario and Official Languages), announced a FedDev Ontario repayable contribution of nearly $850,000 for Candor Industries Inc. (Candor), to scale up and expand operations and create 15 highly-skilled jobs.Candor is a leading fabricator of complex Printed Circuit Boards (PCBs), which allow signals and power to be routed between devices used in everyday life, such as blood sugar monitors and remote controls. Candor is experiencing increased demand from clients in the technology, medical device, telecommunications and aerospace sectors for nanotechnology and semiconductor packages required for the high performance of new devices.With FedDev Ontario support, the company will take on new, first-in-North America PCB manufacturing, including green laser-cutting/drilling, induction lamination, bonding and direct imaging. Adopting new state-of-the-art equipment and technologies will increase output, speed and cleanliness, and add accuracy in its drilling and cutting processes. As a result, Candor will be able to produce higher complexity products for next-generation telecommunications and 5G markets, strengthening its position as an industry leader. Additionally, Candor will significantly reduce its scrap waste and use of environmentally-harmful chemicals, and increase energy efficiency in its lamination process by 80 percent.FedDev Ontario’s investment will also leverage an additional $1.9 million in private sector funding and boost local supply chain spending.Quotes“The far-reaching results of FedDev Ontario’s investments can be seen in businesses like Candor Industries that are successfully weathering COVID-19 and building resilience for the future. By scaling up to achieve state-of-the-art and energy-efficient processes, Candor will reach new global markets, and not only protect, but also create highly-skilled jobs in the region.”– Marie-France Lalonde, Parliamentary Secretary to the Minister of Economic Development and Official Languages (FedDev Ontario and Official Languages)“I am proud to see long-standing local manufacturers, like Candor Industries, seize new global market opportunities by scaling up to serve the next-generation telecommunications and 5G markets, while increasing efficiency and environmental safety. FedDev Ontario’s investment will allow Candor to add 15 high-quality manufacturing jobs here in North York and strengthen supply chain spending in southern Ontario.”– Ya’ara Saks, Member of Parliament for York Centre“This investment represents a step forward in fortifying Canada’s position as a leader in manufacturing, while doing what is necessary to accelerate the transition to net zero future. Our government is working hard to make the necessary investments to give Canadians jobs, help Canada build capacity and stay at the forefront of technology as we build back better.”– The Honourable Mélanie Joly, Minister of Economic Development and Official Languages and Minister responsible for the Federal Economic Development Agency for Southern Ontario“Since 1978, shortly after I immigrated to Canada, I have been in the Printed Circuit Board industry. The journey since has been the Canadian dream. I am proud of how far our Candor team has come, and how we are making a difference in Canadian manufacturing. Thank you to the Government of Canada for the strong support. With programs through FedDev Ontario, you allow Canadian manufacturers to stand out globally, and support not only our local original equipment designers, but global research and development.”– Yogen Patel, President, Candor Industries Inc.Quick factsFounded in 1999, Candor Industries’ PCB manufacturing processes are recognized as environmentally friendly due to their limited use of harmful chemicals, such as formaldehyde, ammonia and tin-lead, which are commonly used in conventional PCB manufacturing practices.Candor continues to push the envelope of PCB manufacturing through continuous R&D, leading both customers and the industry to a brighter future.FedDev Ontario is also supporting Candor in its work to establish partnerships with institutions across southern Ontario to leverage industry expertise and standardize PCB processes and policies, including those in the private and public sector, as well as post-secondary institutions across the province.Canada’s regional development agencies are on the ground helping businesses weather the effects of the pandemic. With the measures recently proposed in Budget 2021, FedDev Ontario will continue to be a trusted partner delivering targeted support for economic recovery in southern Ontario.Additionally, today’s investment aligns with priorities outlined in Budget 2021, a plan for a green recovery that fights climate change, builds a net-zero economy by investing in world-leading technologies that make industry cleaner, helps Canada reach its goal of conserving 25 per cent of our lands and oceans by 2025, and creates good middle-class jobs in the green economy along the way.Since November 2015, FedDev Ontario has invested nearly $490 million in 240 manufacturing projects and over $160 million in over 85 clean tech projects across southern Ontario. /Public Release. This material comes from the originating organization and may be of a point-in-time nature, edited for clarity, style and length. View in full here. Why?Well, unlike many news organisations, we have no sponsors, no corporate or ideological interests. We don’t put up a paywall – we believe in free access to information of public interest. Media ownership in Australia is one of the most concentrated in the world (Learn more). Since the trend of consolidation is and has historically been upward, fewer and fewer individuals or organizations control increasing shares of the mass media in our country. According to independent assessment, about 98% of the media sector is held by three conglomerates. This tendency is not only totally unacceptable, but also to a degree frightening). Learn more hereWe endeavour to provide the community with real-time access to true unfiltered news firsthand from primary sources. It is a bumpy road with all sorties of difficulties. We can only achieve this goal together. Our website is open to any citizen journalists and organizations who want to contribute, publish high-quality insights or send media releases to improve public access to impartial information. You and we have the right to know, learn, read, hear what and how we deem appropriate.Your support is greatly appreciated. All donations are kept completely private and confidential.Thank you in advance!Tags:5G, america, Canada, climate change, Economic Development, efficiency, energy efficiency, Federal, Government, nanotechnology, parliament, regional development, resilience, southern, supply chain, technology, Yorklast_img read more

What to do after the Be Involved Fair

first_imgShare Share via TwitterShare via FacebookShare via LinkedInShare via E-mail Published: Aug. 28, 2020 If you couldn’t attend the virtual Be Involved Fair last week, don’t worry! The opportunities to join student organizations and get involved are happening all semester long. Here are some tips to get involved and connect with fellow Buffs this fall.Browse through BuffConnectWith more than 500 student clubs, volunteer organizations and other recognized groups on campus, there’s something for everyone. Use the power of BuffConnect to explore your interests and help narrow down your search.An easy way to explore all the student organizations at CU Boulder is by searching through categories. There are student organizations from all corners of campus life:AcademicRecreation and wellnessBusiness and entrepreneurshipCultural and internationalFraternities and sororitiesGovernment and politicsEnvironmentalSocial justice and activismReligion and spiritualityArt, music and entertainmentCommunity serviceAnd more!You can also search organizations by using different topics or keywords, or view the entire list alphabetically. Start by searching for some of your favorite hobbies or interests, or search by skills or talents you’d like to explore.Don’t be afraid to reach outStudent organizations are run by students, just like you, who want to connect with others who share similar interests. When you find an organization on BuffConnect you’d like to join, you can view their contact information, social media accounts and meeting times by clicking their BuffConnect profile. Send them an email or check out their social media page to ask about joining.Want more events?Attending campus events and activities is another great way to get involved and meet fellow Buffs! So just in case you missed it, here more ways to find your place. Check out the Center for Student Involvement (CSI) website to connect with student organizations and find more ways to get involved.Don’t forget to look at our Fall Events website and follow us on social media @CUBoulderLife on Instagram, Facebook and Twitter!Try it outIf you’re interested in a student organization, attend one of their meetings to get a feel for what participating will look like. Most orgs will be hosting virtual meetings this semester, so you can see if you like it from the comfort of your room! Ask your roommate or a friend to try out a new student group with you. Having a buddy can take away some of the initial intimidation of trying new things. Remember, it’s OK to attend a meeting and decide it’s not the right fit for you. Just because you participate in a meeting or program does not mean you have to join.Consider your gainsStudent organizations offer many leadership opportunities while at the same time giving you the chance to grow as an individual outside of the classroom. Although it is important to balance your academics with involvement, here are some pros to consider for getting involved:Develop leadership skillsFind your community at CUMeet new friendsDiscover a passion you didn’t know you hadBeing a general member of a student organization can be a great way to stay involved while leaving time for other commitments.Categories:Getting InvolvedCampus Communitylast_img read more